Conversion of departure time and arrival time:
-When taking off and arriving east of Greenwich, subtract the time zone from the local time.
Boeing series common models (B737 / B757 / / B767 / B777 / B747 / b747-f)
Door dimension of B737 series (w * h) cm:
Front cabin: 86*122； Rear compartment: 89*122 ;
Note: B737 series machine belongs to narrow body machine, no bulk cabin, no palletizing, and the gross weight of single cargo shall not exceed 80KGS.
Total cargo volume(M3)：30-40CBM
Cargo business capacity: 2-3 TONS
Door dimension of B737 series (w * h) cm:
Front cabin: 108*140； Rear compartment: 112*140; Bulk capsule: 81*122
Note: B757 series models are not allowed to receive pallets.
Total cargo volume(M3)：50-68CBM
Cargo capacity: 5－7TONS
B767model information (KQ)
Door dimension of B767 series (w * h) cm:
Front cabin: 340*170； Rear compartment: 178*170; Bulk capsule: 96*110
Note: board size: 314 * 2.44; cargo height should be controlled at 1.6m.
Total cargo volume(M3)：100-110CBM
The B747 series is divided into:B747-200/ B747-300/ B747-400(F)
Door dimension of B747 series (w * h) cm:
Main cabin:304*340 ； Front cabin: 168*264； Rear compartment: 168*264 ; Bulk capsule: 112*119
Number of passenger seats: B747-200 350; B747-300 416; B747-400 500
Total cargo volume(M3)： B747-200 170 M3 ； B747-300 175M3； B747-400 120 M3
Cargo capacity: B747-200 60 TONS ； B747-400 120 TONS
Number of crates for flight:
B747-200：7 plates (pieces) / 9 boxes (pieces)
B747-300：15 plates (pieces) / 2 boxes (pieces)
B747-400：7 plates (pieces) / 16 boxes (pieces)
Board box size (length * width):
DPE box: 143 * 106 (CM) weight limit: 600kg (KQ)
Ake / ave box: 155 * 147cm (MH / CZ) (b Boeing series size: 155 * 163 (CM))
This series of airliners with less than 200 seats are narrow body single channel airplanes (there is only one channel in the middle of the cabin), with two bulk compartments (front and rear compartments), which can not be packed with plates; this series of airliners with more than 200 seats are wide body airplanes, with three cargo compartments (front, rear and bulk compartments), which can be packed with plates.
1. For large aircraft, the front cabin is usually loaded with plates, and the rear cabin can only be packed. The plates in the front cabin can be changed into boxes, and the bulk cabin is located at the tail of the aircraft.
2. 2500kg is suitable for large plate, 2300kg for small plate, and 800kg for large box. The small box is generally suitable for 600kg, which can be loaded more when the load is not limited, and can be loaded more when the planting is limited.
3. The receiving size is generally 10cm smaller than the hatch size.
4. The above data are theoretical data, and the specific actual operation shall be subject to the actual situation of aircraft type and cabin stowage.
Common models of Airbus (A319 / A320 / A300 / A330 / A340 / A380)
A300-200 model (TG)
Hatch size (w * h) cm:
Front cabin: 270*178 ；Rear compartment: 181*171 ;Bulk capsule: 95*95
A300 series is divided into: A300-600
Number of passenger seats: 266
Total cargo volume(M3)：115.7M3
Number of crates for flight: 4 plates (blocks) / 22 boxes (PCs.)
Longest voyage (km): 3,519
Maximum duration (hours: minutes): 4:22
Cruise speed (km / h):840
A330 series is divided into: A330-200 、A330-300
Hatch size (w * h) cm:
Front cabin: 244*170 ； Rear compartment: 244*170 ; Bulk capsule: 95*106
Front cabin: 244*170 ； Rear compartment: 244*170 ; Bulk capsule: 95*63
Number of passenger seats:A330-200 / 293 ；A330-300/335
Total cargo volume(M3)： A330-200 136 M3 ； A330-300 161.4M3
Number of crates for flight:
A330-200：6 plates (pieces) / 19 boxes (pieces)
A330-300：11 plates (pieces) / 32 boxes (pieces)
Longest voyage (km): 10,303
Maximum duration (hours: minutes): 11:59
Cruise speed (km / h): 883
Longest voyage (km): 7,582
Maximum duration (hours: minutes): 8:51
Cruise speed (km / h): 883
A340 series is divided into: A340-200、A340-300、A340-500、A340-600
Hatch size (w * h) cm:
Front cabin: 244*170 ； Rear compartment: 244*170 ; Bulk capsule: 95*63
Number of passenger seats:A330-200 293 ；A330-300 335
Total cargo volume(M3)： A330-200 136 M3 ； A330-300 161.4M3
Number of crates for flight:
A340-200：6 plates (blocks) 19 boxes (PCs.)
A340-300：11 plates (blocks) 33 boxes (PCs.)
A340-500：10 plates (blocks) 31 boxes (PCs.)
A340-600：14 plates (blocks) 43 boxes (PCs.)
一、Types of air containers
1. General cargo container
For general cargo, baggage and mail, classification:AMA AMF ALF AKE
Container capacity：621 cu. ft. 17.58mc
Container weight:360 kg
Maximum container weight: 6,804 kg
Container capacity：516 cu. ft. 14.6 mc
Container weight:330 kg
Maximum container weight: 5,035 kg
Container type:747, 747F, 777, Airbus
Container capacity：310 cu. ft., 8.78 mc
Container weight:155 kg
Maximum container weight: 3,175 kg
Container type:747, 747F, 777, Airbus
Container capacity：505 cu. ft., 14.3 mc
Container weight:355 kg
Maximum container weight: 4,626 kg
Container type:747, 747F
Container capacity：152 cu. ft, 4.3mc
Container weight:100 kg
Maximum container weight: 1,588 kg
Container type:747, 747F, 777, Airbus
Mainly used to transport fresh goods, such as fruits, vegetables, seafood and so on. The refrigerated container can use the Australian lock. The interior is equipped with a dry refrigerator with constant temperature.
Container type:RKN Container
Container capacity：125.41 cu. ft., 3.55 mc
Container weight:190 kg
Maximum container weight: 1,588 kg
Container type:747, 747F, 777, Airbus
Container type:RAP Container
Container capacity：352 cu. ft., 9.2mc
Container weight:330 kg
Maximum container weight: 4,626 kg
Container type:747, 747F, 777, Airbus
二、Types of air pallets
The pallet is a flat aluminum plate. The cargo is placed on the board and fixed by the rope net. Classification:PGA PMC,PQP,P6P PEB P1P,PAG PLA
Pallet type:PEB Pallet
Pallet size:Base : 53 x 88 Height: 84
Maximum capacity weight of pallet [including pallet weight]: 1,800 kg (B-HIH - 1,300 kg)
Suitable loading model of pallet: 747F
Pallet type:PGA Pallet
Pallet size:Base: 96 x 238.5 Height: 96 (Q6 Contour), 118 (Q7 Contour)
Maximum capacity weight of pallet [including pallet weight]: 11,340 kg
Suitable loading model of pallet: 747F
Pallet type:PLA Pallet
Pallet size:Base : 60.4 x 125 Height : 64
Maximum capacity weight of pallet [including pallet weight]: 3,175 kg
Suitable loading model of pallet: 747, 747F, 777
I. nature and function of air waybill
Air bill is very different from sea bill, but it is similar to international railway bill. It is an important transport document of goods issued by the carrier or its agent, and it is the contract of carriage of both parties, and its content is binding on both parties. The air waybill is not transferable and the possession of the air waybill does not indicate that ownership of the goods can be claimed.
(1) an air waybill is a contract of carriage between the consignor and the air carrier
Unlike a sea bill of lading, an air waybill not only proves the existence of an air transport contract, but also itself is a contract of carriage of goods concluded between the consignor and the air transport carrier, which takes effect after being signed by both parties and becomes invalid when the goods arrive at the destination and are delivered to the consignee recorded in the waybill.
(2) an air waybill is a certificate issued by the carrier that the goods have been received
The air waybill is also the goods receipt. After the consignor ships the goods, the carrier or its agent will give one of the copies to the consignor (i.e. the consignor's copy) as the proof that the goods have been received. Unless otherwise noted, it is a proof that the carrier has received the goods and shipped them in good condition.
(3) The air waybill is the bill for the carrier to collect the freight
The air waybill records the expenses that belong to the consignee, the expenses that should be paid to the carrier and the fees that should be paid to the agent, and details the type and amount of the fee, so it can be used as the freight bill and invoice. Carriers often also use the carrier as a bookkeeping vouchers.
(4) The air waybill is one of the customs declaration documents
The air waybill at the time of export is one of the customs declaration documents. When the goods arrive at the destination airport for import declaration, the air waybill is usually the basic document for customs clearance.
(5) Air waybill can also be used as insurance certificate
If the carrier undertakes insurance or the consignor requires the carrier to act as insurance, the air waybill can also be used as an insurance certificate.
(6) Air waybill is the basis of the carrier's internal business
The air waybill is accompanied by the goods and proves the identity of the goods. The consignment note carries matters concerning the delivery, transshipment and delivery of the goods, and the carrier will accordingly arrange the transportation of the goods.
The original air waybill is in triplicate, each with a back clause printed on it, one of which is the carrier's or its agent's receipt of the goods; the second is retained by the carrier as a voucher; A copy of the goods, as the basis for the receipt of the goods when the goods arrive at the destination and are delivered to the consignee.
II. Classification of air waybills
Air waybills are mainly divided into two categories:
(1) Air Main Waybill (MAWB, Master Air Waybill)
An air waybill issued by an air transport company is called a main waybill. It is the basis for the air transport company to handle the transportation and delivery of goods. It is the transportation contract concluded between the airline and the shipper. Each batch of air transported goods has its own corresponding air main waybill.
(2) Air Waybill (HAWB, House Air Waybill)
The air waybill issued by the centralized shipper when handling the centralized consignment business is called the air waybill.
In the case of centralized consignment, in addition to the air waybill issued by the air transport company, the centralized shipper must also issue an air waybill. The relationship between the parties at this time is as shown.
In the middle, the air waybill is used as the cargo transportation contract between the centralized shipper and the shipper. The two parties are the goods A, B and the centralized shipper respectively; and the air waybill is the cargo between the air transport company and the centralized shipper. For the contract of carriage, the parties are centralized shippers and air transport companies. The owner has no direct contractual relationship with the air transport company.
Moreover, since the goods are delivered to the air transport company by the centralized shipper at the place of origin, the goods are taken from the air transport company at the destination by the centralized shipper or their agent, and then transferred to the consignee, so the shipper and the air transport company There is also no direct cargo handover relationship. Third, the contents of the air waybill
Air waybills are similar to ocean bills of lading. There are also positive and negative terms. Different airlines also have their own unique air waybill format. The difference is that the shipping company's ocean bill of lading may be different, but most of the air waybills used by airlines draw on the standard format recommended by IATA, the difference is not big. So we only introduce this standard format here, also known as the neutral waybill. The following sections describe the fields that need to be filled out as follows:
1. Departure station airport: It is required to fill in the three-character code of the originating station airport or city formulated by IATA. This column should be consistent with column 11.
1A：The airline code compiled by IATA, such as the code of international airlines in China, is 999;
2．Shipper|s Name and Address: Fill in the name, address, country and contact method of the shipper.
3．Shipper account number: only fill in when necessary.
4．Consignee|s Name and Address: The consignee's name, address, country and contact method should be filled in. Unlike the ocean bill of lading, because the air waybill is not transferable, the words "with instructions" must not appear.
5．Consignee account number: Same as column 3, only when necessary.
6．The name and city of the carrier's agent (Issuing Carrier|s AgentName and City).
7．The agent's IATA code.
9．Airport of Departure and Requested routing: The originating station here should be the same as that entered in column 1.
10．Accounting Information: This field is only filled in when a special payment method is used.
11A（C、E）．To：Fill in the IATA code of the first (two, three) transfer station airport respectively.
11B（D、F）．Carrier (By): The carrier that is transported in the first (second and third) paragraphs respectively.
12．Currency: Enter the ISO currency code.
13．Charge code: Indicates the payment method.
14．Freight and declared value (WT/VAL, weight charge/valuation charge):
There are two situations at this point: prepaid (PPD, Prepaid) or paid (COLL collect). If the prepayment is filled in "14" in 14A, otherwise it will be filled in the 14th. It should be noted that the method of paying the freight and the declared value fee in the air cargo transportation must be the same and cannot be paid separately.
15．Other fees: There are also two types of payment methods: prepaid and paid.
16．Declared Value for Carriage: Enter the declared value of the shipper for shipping in this column. If the shipper does not require a declared value, enter "NVD (No value declared)".
17．Declared Value for Customs: The consignor here fills in the declared value of the customs, or fills in "NCV (No customs valuation)", indicating no declared value.
18．Airport of Destination: Fill in the full name of the final destination airport.
19．Flight/Date: Fill in the flight and date of the shipment.
20．Amount of Insurance: Only fill in when the airline provides insurance on behalf of the customer and the customer needs it.
21．Handling Information: Generally, the carrier pays attention to the handling of the goods, such as "Shipper|s certification for live animals".
22A--22L Freight freight, freight details.
22A.No. of Pieces RCP (Rate Combination Point): The number of packages filled in the goods. If 10 packs, fill in "10". When you need to form a proportional freight rate or a segmented plus freight rate, fill in the IATA code of the airport at the freight rate component point in this column.
22B.Gross Weight: Fill in the gross gross weight of the goods.
22C.Weight unit: can choose kg (kg) or pound (lb).
22D.Rate Class: There are 6 codes for different air freight rates. They are M (Minimum, at least freight), C (Specific Commodity Rates), S (Surcharge), which is higher than the normal freight rate. Class freight rate), R (Reduced, lower than the freight rate of ordinary freight rates), N (Normal, ordinary freight rates applicable to goods below 45 kg), Q (Quantity, applicable for goods above 45 kg) Ordinary freight rate).
22E.Commodity Item No.: You need to fill in the product code in this column when using the special freight rate.
22F.Chargeable Weight: This column is filled with the billable weight that the airline uses to calculate the shipping cost, which can be the same as or different from the gross weight of the cargo.
22G.Rate/Charge: Enter the applicable rate for the item.
22H.Total: The value in this column should be the minimum shipping value or the product of the freight and billing weights.
22I.The name and quantity of the goods, including size and volume (Nature and Quantity of Goods incl. Dimensions or Volume): The size of the goods should be in centimeters or inches, and the dimensions are based on the longest, widest, and highest sides of the goods. The volume is the product of the above three sides, in cubic centimeters or cubic inches.
22J.The total number of goods under the waybill.
22K.The gross gross weight of the goods under the waybill.
22L.The total freight cost of the goods under the waybill.
1. The definition of the general agent of the International Freight Forwarders Association is: according to the instructions of the customer, the person who picks up the goods for the benefit of the customer is not the carrier himself. The freight forwarder can also engage in activities related to the delivery contract, such as storage, customs declaration, acceptance, and collection.
2. The definition of the implementation rules of China's international freight forwarding industry management regulations is: international freight forwarding agency enterprises can act as the consignee of import and export goods, the agent of the consignor, or as an independent operator to engage in international freight forwarding business.
The international freight forwarding enterprise as an agent engaged in international freight forwarding business means that the international freight forwarding enterprise accepts the entrustment of the consignee or consignor or its agent in and out of the goods, handles the relevant business in the name of the principal or own, and collects the agency fee. Or commission behavior.
As an independent operator, the international freight forwarding enterprise engages in international freight forwarding business, which means that the international freight forwarding enterprise accepts the entrustment of the consignee, consignor or its agent to enter and leave the goods, issues the transport document, fulfills the transportation contract and collects the freight and service fee. the behavior of.
Freight forwarding service object
Judging from the basic nature of international freight forwarders, freight forwarders are mainly entrusted by the entrusting party to deal with matters such as cargo transportation, transshipment, warehousing, loading and unloading. On the one hand, it enters into a contract of carriage with the shipper of the goods, and at the same time he signs a contract with the transport department, which is the carrier of the goods for the shipper. At present, a considerable number of cargo agents are in charge of all kinds of transportation tools and storage yards for storing goods, and handle the transportation of goods including sea, land and air when operating their business. The main business of the International Freight Forwarding Agency is:
I. Serving shippers
The freight forwarder replaces the consignor to undertake any procedure in the transportation of different goods:
1. Arrange the appropriate cargo packaging and choose the transportation route of the goods in the fastest and most economical way of transportation.
2. Suggest storage and distribution to customers.
3. Select a reliable and efficient carrier and be responsible for concluding the transportation contract.
4. Arrange the weighting and measurement of the goods.
5. Handle cargo insurance.
6. the assembly of goods.
7. Store the goods before shipment or before the goods are sorted at the destination.
8. Arrange the transportation of goods to the port, go through the formalities of customs and related documents, and hand over the goods to the carrier.
9. On behalf of the shipper/importer, the shipping fee and customs duty.
10. Handle any foreign exchange transactions related to the transportation of goods.
11. Obtain various signed bills of lading from the carrier and hand them over to the shipper.
12. Supervise the process of cargo transportation by contacting the carrier with the agent of the freight forwarder abroad, and let the shipper know where the goods are going.
II. Serving customs
When a freight forwarder acts as a customs agent to handle customs formalities related to import and export goods, it not only represents his clients but also represents customs authorities. In fact, in many countries, he has obtained the permission of these authorities, handles customs procedures, and is responsible to the customs. He is responsible for the early issuance of documents, the exact amount, quantity and name of the goods, so that the government does not Suffered from loss.
III. Serving carriers
The freight forwarder timely settles the carrier, agrees on the fair and reasonable cost to the consignor and the carrier, arranges the delivery at the appropriate time, and resolves the carrier's freight account in the name of the consignor.
IV. service for airlines
Freight forwarders act as agents for airlines in the air transport industry. It is designated as the agent of IATA for the purpose of air cargo transportation. In this relationship, it uses the carrier's freight means to serve the cargo owner, and the carrier pays the Commission. At the same time, as a freight forwarder, it continues to serve the consignor or consignee by providing services suitable for air transportation.
V. service for liner company
The relationship between freight forwarders and liner companies varies with their business. In recent years, the LCL service provided by freight forwarders, i.e. the consolidation service of LCL goods, has established a relatively close relationship between them and liner companies and other carriers (such as railways). However, some countries refuse to pay commissions to freight forwarders, so they strive for commissions worldwide.
VI. providing LCL service
With the growth of intermediate loading and transportation in international trade, the freight forwarder takes the role of the principal in providing the services of container consolidation and consolidation. The basic meaning of consolidation and LCL is to gather the small goods sent by several consignors in one place of shipment to several consignees in another place of destination as a freight forwarder of the whole goods to the destination, and deliver the single bill of goods to each consignee through it. The freight forwarder issues the bill of lading, that is to say, the bill of lading or other similar receipts shall be delivered to the consignor of each bill of goods; the freight forwarder's agent at the port of destination shall deliver the bill of lading to the consignee with the original bill of lading. The consignee and consignor of LCL do not contact with the carrier directly. For the carrier, the freight forwarder is the consignor, while the agent of the Freight Forwarder at the destination port is the consignee. Therefore, the carrier issues a full bill of lading or a waybill to the forwarder. If the consignor or consignee has special requirements, the freight forwarder can also provide door-to-door services at the place of shipment and destination.
VII. Providing multimodal transport services
In the role of freight forwarder, a more far-reaching influence of containerization is that it intervenes in multimodal transport, which is that it acts as the main carrier and undertakes to organize a single contract to carry out door-to-door freight transport through multiple modes of transport. It can negotiate and sign contracts separately with other carriers or other service providers as parties. However, these allocation contracts will not affect the implementation of the multimodal transport contract, that is to say, will not affect the obligations of the consignor and his responsibility for the damage and loss of the goods in the process of multimodal transport. When a freight forwarder acts as a multimodal transport operator, it usually needs to provide a comprehensive "package" of services including all transport and distribution processes, and assume a higher level of responsibility for its customers.
Responsibilities of freight forwarders
1. Basic responsibilities
As the carrier completes the transportation of the goods and assumes responsibility (by issuing the shipping documents, using their own transportation, or entrusting others to complete the transportation of the goods, and collecting the freight).
It is not directly responsible for the carriage of goods by the carrier (issuing the shipping documents by others, using the means of transportation, or renting other people's means of transport, or renting other people's means of transport, or entrusting others to complete the transportation of the goods, is not directly responsible).
In accordance with the agreement or contract with the entrusting party, or when conducting business activities in accordance with the instructions of the entrusting party, the freight forwarder shall complete the entrustment with the usual responsibility, especially within the scope of the authorization.
Report all important matters truthfully. The information and materials provided to the entrusting party in the entrusted business must be true. If there is any concealment or the loss of the information provided, the entrusting party has the right to pursue and cancel the agency contract or agreement with the freight forwarder.
Negative confidentiality obligations. The information obtained during the freight forwarding process is leaked to third parties. At the same time, the transfer of agency rights may not be transferred to others.
2. Term of liability
From the time the goods are received to the destination, the goods are delivered to the consignee, or the goods are placed at the place indicated by the consignee as directed and fulfilled and fulfilled the delivery obligations specified in the contract.
3. Responsibility for the contract
The international freight forwarder shall be liable for the loss of the goods caused by the failure to execute the contract.
4. Responsibility for warehousing
When accepting the goods for storage, the freight forwarder shall, after receiving the goods, give the entrusting party a receipt or warehouse certificate, and perform their duties during the storage of the goods, and select different storage methods according to the characteristics and packaging of the goods.
5. The right
The entrusting party shall pay to the freight forwarder all expenses incurred in the transportation, storage, insurance, customs clearance, visas, handling of documents, etc., and other services provided by the freight forwarder, and also due to the reasons why the freight forwarder cannot control it. Other expenses resulting from the inability to perform the contract. If the loss or damage of the goods falls within the scope of the insurer's contract, after the freight forwarder compensates, the subrogation right is obtained from the owner of the goods, and compensation or reimbursement is obtained from other responsible persons. When the freight forwarder fully compensates the goods, the ownership of the goods is transferred to the freight forwarder.
?、?Due to negligence or negligence of the client.
?、?Due to the fault of the principal or other agent during loading, unloading, warehousing or other operations.
?、?Due to the natural characteristics or potential defects of the goods.
?、?Due to the unsound packaging of the goods, the sign is unclear.
?、?Due to the unclear, incomplete and inaccurate delivery of goods.
?、?Due to unclear and incomplete representation of the contents of the goods.
?、?Due to force majeure, natural disasters, accidents
However, if it can be proved that the loss or damage of the goods is caused by the negligence or negligence of the freight forwarder, or the loss of the goods, the damages shall be compensated.
Freight forwarding liability
The general terms and conditions of the freight forwarding association also stipulates the principle of compensation in two aspects: one is the principle of liability, and the other is the limitation of liability.
I. Principle of liability
If the consignee finds that the goods have been lost or damaged, and can prove that the loss or damage was caused by the negligence of the freight forwarder, that is, to file a claim with the freight forwarder, in general, the notice of the claim shall not exceed the number of days after the arrival of the goods. Otherwise, the delivery obligation has been fulfilled as a freight forwarder. Basic compensation principle for freight forwarding:
1. If the market price or the current price of the goods at the grounding point is different from the invoice amount, but the difference cannot be determined, the invoice amount shall be compensated.
2. No compensation shall be paid for antiques and other special value of goods of no actual value. (unless a special statement is made and the fee is paid)
3. the team also lives in accordance with the law, the freight, customs tax, and other expenses are responsible for compensation. But no compensation for further losses.
4. Partial loss or damage of the goods shall be compensated in proportion.
5. If the goods are still delivered within the delivery date of the delivery date, it constitutes a delay in delivery, and the freight forwarder shall compensate for the direct consequences and reasonable expenses that may be caused by the delay.
II. Limitation of liability
From the existing international conventions, some adopt the single standard compensation method, some adopt the double standard compensation method, so should the compensation method for the international freight forwarder, but the actual practices are different and the differences are large.
Container full container flow process:
1. The shipper configures the container in his own factory or warehouse;
2. The consignor shall pack the goods in his own factory or warehouse;
(1) the term "regular route" refers to a route that uses fixed ships, sails according to a fixed schedule and port, and operates passenger and cargo transportation business at a relatively fixed freight rate. Regular routes, also known as liner routes, mainly carry miscellaneous goods. (2) irregular route is the route selected temporarily according to the needs of freight transportation. Ships, shipping dates and ports are not fixed. They are mainly engaged in bulk and low-cost cargo transportation.
2. By distance
(1) ocean-going shipping line refers to the shipping line with a long distance and a ship sailing across the ocean, such as the route to Europe and America as far east. Our country is used to taking Aden port as the boundary, and the routes to the west of Aden port, including the two sides of the Red Sea, Europe and the vast areas of North and South America, are classified as ocean routes. (2) near sea shipping line refers to the general designation of the sea transportation routes between the ports of our country and the ports of neighboring countries. In China, the routes in Asia and Oceania to the east of port Aden are usually called near sea routes. (3) coastal shipping line refers to the sea transportation routes between the ports of our country, such as Shanghai / Guangzhou, Qingdao / Dalian, etc.
3. According to the scope of navigation: (1) Atlantic route; (2) Pacific route; (3) Indian ocean route; (4) global route
2. The bill of lading can be divided into clean bill of lading (clean / L) and unclean or foul B / L according to whether there are bad comments on the appearance of the goods. The former refers to the bill of lading whose surface condition is good when the goods are loaded on board, and which generally does not indicate that the goods and / or the packing are defective. In foreign trade, for the sake of security, the bank requires clean B / L when negotiating payment. The latter refers to the bill of lading on which the carrier has annotated the goods and / or poor packing condition or defects.
3. According to different modes of transportation, B / l can be divided into direct B / L, transshipment B / L, through B / / L and combined transport B / L. Direct bill of lading is a bill of lading issued by the carrier and shipped directly from the port of departure to the port of destination. If the cargo ship at the port of departure does not sail directly to the port of destination, the bill of lading issued when another ship arrives at the port of destination shall be replaced at the port of transshipment, which is called the transshipment bill of lading. If the goods need to be transported through two or more stages to the destination port, and one of them is by sea, such as land and sea, the bill of lading issued by air sea or sea sea sea combined transport is called combined transport bill of lading. So transshipment bill of lading is actually a kind of through bill of lading. However, the combined transportation must be the consistent transportation of two or more different modes of transportation, and the cargo bill of lading issued by the carrier. Therefore, the combined transport bill of lading is also called multimodal transport bill of lading. At present, in practical business, many shipping companies use the same format of combined transport bill of lading and combined transport bill of lading. Only when they are used as combined transport bill of lading, they must list the port of departure and the port of destination on the bill of lading, as well as the place of receipt, the place of delivery and the name of the preceding means of transport.
4. According to the different title of B / L, B / l can be divided into straight B / L, bearer B / L and order B / L. A straight bill of lading lists the name of the consignee in the column of the consignee, so it is also called the consignee's header bill of lading. This kind of bill of lading can't be transferred by endorsement, and the goods can only be delivered to the consignee listed. A bearer bill of lading is a bill of lading in which the name of the consignee is not listed on the bill of lading. Whoever holds the bill of lading can take delivery of the goods to the carrier by presentation, and the carrier's delivery is based on the voucher. The instruction bill of lading, which does not list the consignee, can be transferred by endorsement, which is conducive to the turnover of funds and is widely used in international trade. Endorsement of bill of lading (Endorsement) has two kinds: blank endorsement and registered endorsement. Blank endorsement is signed by the endorser (i.e. the transferor of the bill of lading) on the back of the bill of lading with the name of the endorser's unit and the signature of the person in charge, but does not indicate the name of the endorsee or require the approval of the issuer of the original bill of lading. Indicating that a bill of lading can be transferred upon endorsement means that the endorser confirms the transfer of ownership of the bill of lading. In addition to the endorsement in blank, the name of the endorsee shall also be indicated. If the endorsee makes another transfer, it must be endorsed. If the bill of lading has the instructions of the shipper, the consignee and the importer's Bank, it can be transferred or picked up only after the endorsement of the shipper, the consignee or the importer's Bank.
In addition, there are full bill of lading and simple bill of lading; freight prepaid bill of lading and freight collect bill of lading; original bill of lading and duplicate bill of lading; bill of lading under charter party; deck bill of lading, counter signed bill of lading, advance bill of lading and so on.
(2) transportation number, i.e. the number of the power of attorney.
Each shipper with import and export rights has a shipping code (usually commercial invoice number) for checking and financial settlement.
(3) name of goods
According to the actual name of the goods, it should be filled in both Chinese and English. More importantly, it should be consistent with the name of the goods listed in the letter of credit.
(4) marks and numbers, also known as shipping mark, are used to identify goods and prevent wrong delivery. They are usually composed of model, graphic receiving unit abbreviation, destination port, number of pieces or batch number, etc.
(5) weight measurement. The unit of weight is kilogram and the size is cubic meter;
(6) for palletized goods, the weight, size and weight of the goods shall be indicated respectively. For super long, overweight and super high goods, the detailed volume (length, width and height) and weight of each piece shall be provided, so that the freight company can calculate the stowage factor of the goods and arrange special loading equipment.
(7) payment method of freight. Generally, there are freight prepaid and freight collect. For some transshipment goods, the first freight shall be prepaid and the second freight shall be paid upon arrival, which shall be indicated separately.
(8) transshipment, partial shipment, loading period and validity period shall be indicated in accordance with the requirements of the L / C or the contract.
(9) notify person, consignee, and decide whether to fill in as required.
(10) relevant terms of transport, booking of shipping space and stowage of L / C goods shall also be listed one by one if the customer has special requirements.
(2) shipping order -- S / O
It is a shipping company that has accepted the shipper's application for shipment and issued it to the shipper to order the master to ship the goods. The shipping order is not only the basis for shipment, but also one of the main documents for the consignor to go through the export declaration formalities with the customs.
(3) goods receipt (M / R);
Also known as the chief mate's receipt, it is the receipt of the goods received by the ship and the evidence that the goods have been loaded on board.
As the main items of the above three documents are basically the same, in some major ports of our country, the method is to make them into joint documents and make documents at one time, which can not only reduce workload, but also reduce errors.
(4) loading list
It is the summary list of loading list prepared by the carrier according to the bottom of the loading list, the classification of the whole ship's goods to be loaded according to the port of destination and the nature of the goods, and the sequence of voyage and port. It is the main basis for the chief mate of the ship to prepare the stowage plan. It is also the business document for the site tally personnel to tally the goods, the port side to arrange the lightering, in and out of the warehouse and the carrier to master the situation.
(5) delivery order -- D / O
Also known as small bill of lading. If the consignee exchanges the original bill of lading or the duplicate bill of lading with the valid guarantee to the carrier or its agent, it may take the certificate of goods from the port loading and unloading department. When issuing small bills of lading, the following should be done: (1) the original bill of lading is held by the legal holder; (2) the non clean annotation on the bill of lading should be transferred to the small bill of lading. (3) in case of overflow, shortage and disability, the consignee is entitled to obtain corresponding visa from the carrier or its agent. (4) if the freight is not paid, the bill of lading can be released only after the consignee has paid the freight and related expenses.
(6) Bill of lading (B / L) is the receipt of goods issued by the carrier or his agent at the request of the shipper, which is issued after the goods are taken into his care to prove that the goods listed in the bill of lading have been received; it is a document of title. The holder of the bill of lading can take delivery of the goods, or use it to negotiate with the bank, or transfer the goods before the ship arrives at the port of destination for delivery, which is the proof of the contract of carriage between the carrier and the shipper.
Abbreviation Chinese English
A/W 全水路 All Water
ANER 亞洲北美東行運費協定 Asia NorthAmerica EastboundRate
B/L 海運提單 Bill of Lading
B/R 買價 Buying Rate
BAF 燃油附加費 Bunker AdjustmentFactor
C&F 成本加海運費 COST AND FREIGHT
C.C 運費到付 Collect
C.S.C 貨柜服務費 Container Service Charge
C.Y. 貨柜場 Container Yard
C/(CNEE) 收貨人 Consignee
C/O 產地證 Certificate of Origin
CAF 貨幣匯率附加費 Currency Adjustment Factor
CFS 散貨倉庫 Container Freight Station
CHB 報關行 Customs House Broker
CIF 成本，保險加海運費 COST，INSURANCE，FRIGHT
CIP 運費、保險費付至目的地 Carriage and Insurance Paid To
COMM 商品 Commodity
CPT 運費付至目的地 Carriage Paid To
CTNR 柜子 Container
D/A 承兌交單 Document Against Acceptance
D/O 到港通知 Delivery Order
D/P 付款交單 Document Against Payment
DAF 邊境交貨 Delivered At Frontier
DDC 目的港碼頭費 Destination Delivery Charge
DDP 完稅后交貨 Delivered Duty Paid
DDU 未完稅交貨 Delivered Duty Unpaid
DEQ 目的港碼頭交貨 Delivered Ex Quay
DES 目的港船上交貨 Delivered Ex Ship
Doc# 文件號碼 Document Number
EPS 設備位置附加費 Equipment Position Surcharges
Ex 工廠交貨 Work/ExFactory
F/F 貨運代理 Freight Forwarder
FAF 燃料附加費 Fuel AdjustmentFactor
FAK 各種貨品 Freight All Kind
FAS 裝運港船邊交貨 Free Alongside Ship
FCA 貨交承運人 Free Carrier
FCL 整柜 Full Container Load
Feeder Vessel/Lighter 駁船航次
FEU 40‘柜型 Forty-Foot Equivalent Unit 40’
FMC 聯邦海事委員會 Federal Maritime Commission
FOB 船上交貨 Free On Board
GRI 全面漲價 General RateIncrease
H/C 代理費 Handling Charge
HBL 子提單 House B/L
I/S 內銷售 Inside Sales
IA 各別調價 Independent Action
L/C 信用證 Letter of Credit
Land Bridge 陸橋
LCL 拼柜 Less Than Container Load
M/T 尺碼噸（即貨物收費以尺碼計費） Measurement Ton
MB/L 主提單 Master Bill Of Loading
MLB 小陸橋，自一港到另一港口 Minni Land Bridge
Mother Vessel 主線船
MTD 多式聯運單據 Multimodal Transport Document
N/F 通知人 Notify
NVOCC 無船承運人 Non Vessel OperatingCommon Carrier
O/F 海運費 Ocean Freight
OBL 海運提單 Ocean (or original )B/L
OCP 貨主自行安排運到內陸點 Overland Continental Point
OP 操作 Operation
ORC 本地收貨費用（廣東省收?。?Origen Recevie Charges
P.P 預付 Prepaid
PCS 港口擁擠附加費 Port Congestion Surcharge
POD 目地港 Port Of Destination
POL 裝運港 Port Of Loading
PSS 旺季附加費 Peak Season Sucharges
S/(Shpr) 發貨人 Shipper
S/C 售貨合同 Sales Contract
S/O 裝貨指示書 Shipping Order
S/R 賣價 Selling Rate
S/S Spread Sheet Spread Sheet
SC 服務合同 Service Contract
SSL 船公司 Steam Ship Line
T.O.C 碼頭操作費 Terminal Operations Option
T.R.C 碼頭收柜費 Terminal Receiving Charge
T/S 轉船，轉運 Trans-Ship
T/T 航程 Transit Time
TEU 20‘柜型 Twenty-Foot Equivalent Unit 20’
THC 碼頭操作費（香港收取) Terminal Handling Charges
TTL 總共 Total
TVC/ TVR 定期定量合同 Time Volume Contract/ Rate
VOCC 船公司 Vessel Operating Common Carrier
W/M 即以重量噸或者尺碼噸中從高收費 Weight or Measurement ton
W/T 重量噸(即貨物收費以重量計費) Weight Ton
YAS 碼頭附加費 Yard Surcharges
There are many kinds of surcharges, and with some changes, new surcharges will be cancelled or formulated. Here are some common types of surcharges:
1. Fuel surcharge or fuel adjustment factor (BAF)
2. Devaluation surcharge or currency adjustment factor (CAF)
3. Deviation surcharge
4. Suez Canal Surcharge
5. Transshipment surcharge
6. Direct additional
7. Port surcharge
8. Port congestion surcharge
9. Heavy lift additional
10. Long length additional
11. Cleaning charge
12. Fumigation charge
13. Ice surcharge
14. Optional fees or optional additional
15. Alteration charge
A document evidencing the contract of carriage by sea and the taking over or loading of the goods by the carrier and the carrier's assurance of delivery at the port of destination.
2) house B / L
B / L issued by freight forwarder. The bill of lading is usually issued when the goods are shipped from and inland. Such bills of lading are usually used by International Forwarders. This kind of bill of lading is also used by the general forwarder to meet the customer's counter signing or other requirements that the owner cannot meet.
3) Master B / L
B / L issued by the owner.
4) shipped or board B / L
A bill of lading issued by the carrier to the shipper on which the goods have been loaded.
5) received for shipping B / L
B / L issued by the carrier when the goods have been received but not yet loaded on board.
6) direct B / L
It refers to the bill of lading issued when the goods are shipped from the loading port to the unloading port without changing the ship.
8) through B / L
The bill of lading issued by the carrier at the loading port and transshipped to the port of destination.
9) MTB / L
It refers to the bill of lading applicable to the whole transportation signed by two or more modes of transportation such as sea, inland river, railway, highway and air.
10) Liner B / L
Liner is a ship that is engaged in continuous freight transportation between specified ports on a certain route according to the published schedule. Liner can be divided into two types: regular setting out and irregular setting out.
11) Charter Party B / L
Generally, it refers to the bill of lading issued by the owner or the charterer when the charterer carries all the charterer's goods, the bill of lading signed by the owner to the charterer, or not all the charterer's goods.
12) Straight B / L
It refers to the bill of lading that only the consignee named on the bill of lading can pick up the goods, which is generally not negotiable.
13) Order B / L
There are usually no column name indication (order only), and column name indication (order of sheet or order of design * * company; order of * * bank). Such bill of lading may be transferred by endorsement of the instructing party.
14) Blank B / L or open B / L
There is no consignee or order in the bill of lading, that is, any holder of the bill of lading is entitled to take delivery of the goods.
15) Clean B / L
When the goods are delivered, they appear to be in good condition. When the carrier issues the bill of lading, he does not add any remarks that damage to the goods, poor packing or hinder the settlement of foreign exchange.
16) Unclean B / L
When the goods are delivered, if the packing and surface state of the goods are not solid and complete, the ship can endorse it as unclean bill of lading.
17) Parcel receipt or non-negotiable receipt
Suitable for small amount of goods, luggage or samples.
18) Minimum B / L
If the freight does not reach the minimum amount stipulated in the freight rate, it shall be charged according to the specified minimum freight rate.
19) Consolidated B / L omnibus B / L or combined B / L
When several bills of lading are issued, the former is called combined bill of lading and the latter is called assembled bill of lading.
20) Separate B / L
It refers to a batch of goods, i.e. goods of the same loading order, which can be divided into two or more sets of bills of lading according to the requirements of the shipper.
21) Stale B / L
It refers to the bill of lading that the exporter's date of presentation and settlement of foreign exchange to the bank is too long from the date of shipment and sailing, so that it can't be delivered to the consignee at the destination before the ship arrives at the destination. Generally, the bank does not accept such bill of lading.
22) Exchange B / L
It refers to a set of bills of lading issued at the midway port after the issuance of the bill of lading at the port of departure, as the shipment of the goods from the midway or transit station.
23) Anti-dated B / L
It refers to the bill of lading issued by the carrier at the request of the shipper after the goods have been loaded on board and the date of issuance of the bill of lading is earlier than the actual date of completion of loading.
24) Advanced B / L
If the goods fail to be loaded on time due to the expiry of the shipment and settlement period stipulated in the L / C, but they have been under the control of the carrier or have started loading, the shipper shall issue a letter of guarantee to require the carrier to advance the bill of lading.
25) On deck B / L
A bill of lading in which the cargo is loaded on the open deck of a ship and the words "甲板上" are indicated.
1. The bill of lading is the receipt of the carrier for receiving the goods or loading the goods
Generally speaking, a bill of lading issued by the carrier or its agent after the goods have been loaded on board indicates that the goods have been received or loaded by the carrier. However, in the actual business, after the cargo is loaded on board, the first mate's receipt issued by the first mate who is responsible for supervising the loading is used as the receipt for the carrier to take over the cargo or load the cargo. The bill of lading is based on the first mate's receipt or station receipt, which records the contents of the first mate's receipt or station receipt, so the bill of lading also has the function of the carrier's receipt for receiving goods or loading goods. Although the first mate's receipt or station receipt is the original receipt of the goods received by the carrier, they are only used as shipping documents or transport documents; what the shipper ultimately needs is not shipping documents, but bills of lading that can be used for settlement of foreign exchange, by which the consignee can take delivery of the goods and for commercial circulation. Therefore, the bill of lading is not only a shipping (or transportation) document, but also a commercial (business) document.
As the goods receipt, the bill of lading not only proves the name, type, quantity, mark and appearance of the goods received, but also proves the time of receiving the goods. In international trade, it is customary to ship the goods to symbolize the delivery of the goods by the seller to the buyer, so the time when the on board bill of lading is issued means the delivery time of the seller. In practice, when the shipper obtains the on board B / L, he can settle the foreign exchange with the bank and get the payment. Therefore, it is very necessary to prove the time of shipment of the goods with the bill of lading.
2. The bill of lading is the proof of the establishment of the contract of carriage of goods by sea
For the establishment of liner cargo transportation contract, first of all, the shipper shall book the space at the shipping company or its agent (shipping agent) with the consignment note or the letter of authorization for booking the space, which can be called "offer". If the carrier can meet the requirements of the shipper, accept the booking, determine the ship name, voyage number, bill of lading number, and sign on the shipping note, it can be called "commitment", that is, the contract of carriage of goods by sea is established. This agreement is the basis for both parties to arrange the transportation of goods. In case of any dispute, this Agreement shall also be the basis for settling the dispute.
The B / L is obtained after the goods are loaded on board, or in the process of contract performance. However, the right and obligation between the consignor and the consignor are not stipulated in the consignment note or the letter of authorization for booking space, while the clauses on the back of the bill of lading are stipulated, and the legal recognition is the basis for solving the disputes of liner cargo transportation. However, according to the strict legal concept, the bill of lading does not fully meet the basic conditions of an economic contract. It is not the product of the agreement between the two parties. The terms of the bill of lading that bind the two parties are formulated unilaterally by the carrier, or even issued by the bill of lading. The shipper does not look at them at all, so he goes to the bank to settle the exchange. In practice, what's more, I have been engaged in international trade for many years, but I don't know what terms and regulations the bill of lading has. Therefore, the issuance of a bill of lading by the carrier is only a certificate of the conclusion of the contract of carriage of goods by sea. If the consignor and the consignor have no agreement or contract other than the bill of lading, then the bill of lading is a certificate of the contract with the terms on the bill of lading.
If the shipper and the carrier have a contract of carriage, the rights and obligations of the consignor and the consignor shall be based on the contract; however, the rights and obligations of the consignee or the holder of the bill of lading and the carrier shall be handled according to the terms of the bill of lading, which is the contract of carriage between the consignee and the carrier. Article 78 of China's maritime law stipulates that "the rights and obligations of the carrier, the consignee and the holder of the bill of lading shall be determined in accordance with the provisions of the bill of lading."
3. The bill of lading is the document of title that the carrier guarantees to deliver the goods and transfer
According to the definition of B / L, the carrier should deliver the goods by B / L according to the provisions of B / L, and whoever holds the B / l can take delivery of the goods; the holder of B / L, no matter who, as long as he can deliver the B / L, the carrier guarantees to deliver the goods by way of B / L, he will not ask where the B / L comes from, or even investigate how to legally hold the B / L. Therefore, the holder of the bill of lading is the owner of the real right, which fully shows that the bill of lading is a document of real right. Except for the provisions of the law, the bill of lading can be transferred and mortgaged.
In order to speed up the circulation of goods and facilitate the financing, there has been "documentary trading" in international trade. As long as the document holder transfers the document representing a certain property or asset to another person, it means the transfer of ownership of the property or asset, and the transferor can obtain the price in time to accelerate the capital turnover. Since the bill of lading is a document of real right, in order to meet the above needs, in addition to the non-negotiable bill of lading, it can be sold and transferred by endorsement, which plays a very important role in international trade.
However, the transfer of B / L is restricted by certain conditions: first, the transfer of B / L must be valid before the carrier delivers the goods at the port of destination. If the carrier delivers the goods with one original B / L, the remaining copies will lose their validity, and the B / l can no longer be transferred; second, the holder of B / L must negotiate with the carrier to take delivery of the goods within a certain period of time when the goods arrive at the port of destination Third, the carrier can exercise the right to dispose of the undeliverable goods, which limits the validity of the bill of lading as the document of title.
In addition to the above nature and function, B / L plays an important role in business contact, cost settlement, foreign claims, etc
(I) relevant terms:
1. Basic rate refers to the basic freight charged for each freight unit (such as one freight ton). The basic rate is divided into grade rate, goods rate, ad valorem rate, special rate and uniform rate. Liner freight is composed of basic freight and surcharges.
2. Surcharges: in order to maintain the stability of the basic rate in a certain period of time, and correctly reflect the shipping costs of various goods in each port, liner companies have stipulated various fees in addition to the basic rate. There are:
(1) fuel surcharge (b.a.f.) is added when fuel price suddenly rises.
(2) devaluation surcharge or currency adjustment factor -- c.a.f. in case of devaluation, the ship's actual income will not be reduced, and the surcharges will be increased by a certain percentage of the basic freight rate.
(3) transshipment surcharges. The surcharges charged by the shipowner, including transshipment fee and second voyage freight, for the goods to be transported to the non basic port and to the destination port.
(4) direct additional. When the cargo transported to the non basic port reaches a certain quantity, the shipping company can arrange the additional charges for direct shipping to the port without transshipment.
(5) heavy lift additional, long length additional and super charge of bulk cargo. A surcharge charged when the gross weight or length or volume of a piece of goods exceeds or reaches the value specified in this tariff.
(6) port additional or port surcharge. In some ports, due to poor equipment conditions or low loading and unloading efficiency, as well as other reasons, surcharges are imposed by shipping companies.
(7) port congestion surcharge. Some ports are overcrowded, and ships have increased their berthing time.
(8) optional surcharges. If the shipper can not determine the specific port of discharge at the time of shipment, it is required to choose one of the two or more ports proposed in advance to discharge the cargo, and the ship will charge additional charges.
(9) change of the port of discharge surcharge: the additional charge that the owner requires to change the original port of discharge with the permission of the relevant authority (such as Haiguan) and the consent of the shipowner.
(10) deviation surcharge. The additional charge imposed by the ship when the ship has to make a detour to transport the goods to the destination port because the normal channel is blocked.
(II) freight calculation standard (basis / unit for freight calculation): it is usually calculated according to the weight of the goods; according to the size or volume of the goods; according to the weight or size of the goods, select the one with the higher freight charge; charge a certain percentage of the FOB price of the goods as the fee, which is called ad valorem freight; calculate and collect according to the unit of each piece; charge freight according to the price temporarily agreed by both parties of the goods, which is called ad valorem freight For bargaining.
(III) freight calculation steps:
(1) select the relevant freight cost;
(2) according to the name of the goods, the freight calculation standard (basis) and class are found in the goods classification table;
(3) in the basic rate part of the level rate table, find the corresponding route, departure port and destination port, and find the basic freight rate by level.
(4) find out all the items and amount (or percentage) and currency types of surcharges receivable (paid) from the surcharges;
(5) calculate the actual freight rate according to the basic freight rate and surcharge;
(6) freight = freight rate X freight ton
II. Freight calculation of charter party:
There are some stipulated freight rates in the charter party, which are calculated by the amount of each unit weight or volume of the goods, and some stipulated lump sum freight. The level of the rate mainly depends on the supply and demand of the charter market, but it is also related to the transportation distance, the type of goods, the loading and unloading rate, the use of the port, the division of loading and unloading expenses and the level of commission. In the contract, the freight shall be calculated according to the loading weight (intaken quantity) or the delivered quantity. If the freight is prepaid or paid on arrival, it shall be specified. It should be noted in particular that the freight payable time refers to the date of receipt by the owner, not the date of payment by the charterer.
Division of handling costs:
(1) gross or liner or berth terms, also known as "Liner conditions".
(2) when adopting the condition of free in and out -- FIO, the shipowner shall also make clear who shall bear the charge for stowage and flat charge. Generally, charterers are required to bear, that is, the shipowner does not bear loading and unloading, free in and out, stowed, trimmed -- f.i.o.s.t.
(3) free out -- F.O. conditions.
(4) free in -- f.i.
III. container freight
At present, the container freight system is more mature than the inland freight system. Basically, it can be divided into two categories: one is the calculation method of the freight of the general cargo, i.e. the unit is per freight ton (commonly known as the bulk price), and the other is per container (commonly known as the package price).
1. Basic rate of general cargo plus surcharge:
(1) basic rate -- referring to the freight rate of traditional general cargo, the freight ton is used as the calculation unit, and the grade rate is used in most routes.
(2) surcharges - in addition to the regular surcharges for traditional groceries, there are also surcharges related to the transportation of container goods.
2. Box rate: this rate is based on each container. It is commonly used in the case of container delivery, i.e. cfs-cy or CY-CY terms. The common box rate has the following three forms:
(1) FAK packing rate (freight for all kinds) - that is, for each container, it does not subdivide the goods in the container, and does not count the freight uniformly charged for the quantity of goods (within the important limit).
(2) FCS freight for class: the freight rate of general cargo in container is the same as that of general cargo transportation, but the freight rate difference of general cargo in container is much smaller than that of general cargo. The charge of general low-level container is higher than that of traditional transportation, and the charge of high-price container is lower than that of traditional transportation The freight rate of container is higher than that of volume. It can be seen that the shipping company encourages people to pack and transport high priced goods and bulk goods. Under this rate, the LCL freight calculation is the same as the traditional transportation. According to the name of the goods, we can find the grade, calculate the standard, and then set the corresponding rate, multiply the freight ton, that is the freight.
(3) FCB packing rate (freight for class or basis) - this is the rate formulated according to different goods grades or categories and calculation standards.
Five navigation rights
The right of navigation "is called" freedom of the air "according to international practice. The concept of "traffic rights" originated from the "Chicago conference" in 1944, also known as "freedom of the air". Its legal basis is the provisions of the international air transit agreement (commonly known as the "two free agreements") and the international air transport agreement (commonly known as the "five free agreements") in 1944.
The first right of navigation, the right of overflight;
Second right of navigation, right of technical suspension;
Third right of navigation, destination underground passenger and cargo rights;
The fourth right of navigation, the right to pick up passengers and goods at the destination;
The fifth right of navigation is the right to pick up and disembark passengers or goods at a certain point within the territory of a third country.
Specific explanation: the third aviation right refers to the right of an airline in one country or region to carry passengers and goods from its country or region of registration to another country or region;
The fourth right of navigation refers to the right of an airline of one country or region to carry passengers and goods from another country or region back to its country or region of registration;
The fifth aviation right refers to the right of an airline of a country or region to carry passengers and goods between two countries or regions outside its country or region of registration, but the starting point of its flight must be its country or region of registration.